Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Definition &CausesSymptomsInvestigations & TreatmentsRisk Factors & PreventionOutcome
Definition and Causes:


Parkinson's Disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain and nervous system that affects movement and coordination. It is characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowness of movements with the tendency to fall.



  • The human brain is made up of billions of brain cells. One type of brain cells called 'neurons' is responsible for our thoughts, senses, movements etc.
  • Neurons communicate with each other using chemicals that we refer to as neuro-transmitters. One such neuro-transmitter is "dopamine"
  • Neurons containing dopamine play an important role in movement, coordination and stability of the body. In Parkinson's disease the neurons producing and using dopamine begin to die
  • Loss of these dopaminergic neurons in a specific part of the brain called "the basal ganglia" lead to many of the symptoms in Parkinson's disease; such as tremors, stiffness, slowness etc.
  • Unfortunately once the process begins; there is no proven way of reversing it. The condition often progresses slowly, but is variable from person to person
  • In most cases there is no known cause. This is referred to as idiopathic and implies that the disease has come on spontaneously without any identifiable trigger
  • In some however, there is a genetic link, but this represents only a minority of patients
  • Some conditions have been implicated in the Parkinson's and includes, previous brain injury/head trauma, stroke, brain infections (called encephalitis), and exposure to toxins (pesticides/herbicides)
Back to Top

There are a number of symptoms associated with Parkinson's Disease. The main four can be listed by the acronym "TRAP" which stands for

  1. Tremors: May be observed in arms or legs. Occurs when the limb is at rest. May be more evident when patient is concentrating on a mental task (e.g reading, math). Hand writing is affected. Symptoms may begin on one side of the body before gradually appearing on the other side
  2. Rigidity: Refers to stiffness of the limbs/body; gradually worsens over time
  3. Akinesia (Bradykinesia)
    • Term used to represent slowing down of movements
  4. Postural instability
    • Refers to difficulty maintaining balance, usually when standing, with the tendency of the patient to fall
  5. Other associated symptoms include
    • Loss of facial expression
    • Difficultly walking, shuffling gait
    • Difficulty swallowing/drooling
    • Difficulty with dexterity and fine movements e.g. writing
    • Memory problems/dementia
    • Confusion
    • Depression
Back to Top
Investigations and Treatment:

Patients suspected of having Parkinson's disease would be asked about their past and current medical conditions:


  • Family history of Parkinson's disease
  • Previous head trauma
  • Previous brain infections (e.g. encephalitis)
  • Brain tumor
  • Life style (use of illicit street drugs)
  • Occupation and potential exposure to toxins
  • Medication use: Some prescribed medications can sometimes affect the action of dopamine within the brain and produce symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease

Physical Exam:

  • Neurological exam: Check for changes in speech, vision, sensation, strength, co-ordination, slowness of movements, tremors, difficulty walking, and (in)ability to maintain posture when standing. Detection of these symptoms might help to signify abnormalities within the brain



Parkinson's disease is often diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. However, some tests may still be conducted to rule out other causes. Some of these investigations might include:

Blood test:

  • Routine blood work as well as assessment for certain minerals such as manganese and copper

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan:

  • This device uses x-rays. Patients will lie on a table with the head placed inside of the scanner (resembles a large donut). Computer analysis of x-ray images produces detailed images of the brain. The scanning time is usually very rapid (less than 1 minute). In special circumstances a dye might be injected into the veins just before the scan (CT with contrast). This can sometimes help to identify areas of infection (abscesses), inflammation, tumors etc.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

  • This does not use x-rays. Instead MRI uses magnetic fields over the body. The device looks like a long cylindrical tube. Patients will lie on a table that slides into the hollow tube. Computer analysis of magnetic fields within the machine can generate images of the internal structures of the body's organs, including the brain. MRI of the brain will show the normal structures, plus any area(s) of brain injury caused by the inflammation, tumors, stroke etc. Patients must lie still inside a MRI machine for about a 30-60 min. In some circumstances a dye might be injected into the veins (enhanced MRI) just before the scan to help improve detection of abnormalities. Patients who complain of claustrophobia or discomfort may be given a mild sedative to help relax prior to MRI scanning



There is no known cure. There is however treatment available to control symptoms and help improve the quality of life. During the early stages there may not be a need for medications. However, as the condition advances, particularly if the symptoms are beginning to affect the usual daily activities, work, or social life, medications would be required.

1. Medications:

Some commonly used medications are shown in alphabetical order with trade name/generic name include:

Parkinson Treatment-commonly used medications

These medications may have side effects. Some common side effects are:

  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Impulsive behavior/obsessions
  • Dizziness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Hallucinations

However, while there are potential side effects from using these medications, there are also the effects of untreated Parkinson's-which includes worsening tremor, rigidity, falls with resultant injuries (fractures), immobility and overall poor quality of life. Consequently, the treating physician will assess the side effect risks versus the benefits in controlling symptoms and improving quality of life (risk versus benefit ratio), before recommending treatment. If the patient has other medical conditions or using other medications, these are taken into account when prescribing medications for Parkinson's.

2. Surgical Options:

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS):

  • May be considered for some patients. Brain imaging with CT and MRI are used to target the exact part of the brain, i.e. the neurons in and around the basal ganglia, for electrical stimulation
  • A small hole is made through the skull at the top of the head through which a thin wire-like device is inserted into the brain to the desired area. Since there are two basal ganglia, one within each half of the brain (right and left hemispheres), the procedure can be done unilaterally (i.e. within one basal ganglia) or bilaterally (within both basal ganglia)
  • The procedure is reversible and the stimulation adjustable for optimal benefit
  • Stimulation can be used to help tremors, rigidity and other abnormal writhing movements that may develop over time
  • Potential but infrequent complications of DBS
    • Bleeding, stroke, seizures; death in 1%
    • Cognitive decline and mood disturbances

3. Other interventions

  • Counselling and/or psychotherapy to assist with emotional and psychological support of patient and family
  • Physical and occupational therapy to help improve balance and walking
  • Speech therapy may assist both speech and swallowing
  • Adjustments to homes to reduce the risk of falls and assist mobility (use of hand rails, removing carpets)
  • Use of local support groups and societies
Back to Top
Risk Factors and Prevention:

Risk Factors:


  • While there can be an early onset of the disease (juvenile Parkinson's), the condition tends to be seen more so after age 50


  • Slightly higher chance of developing Parkinson's if a close relative has/had Parkinson's disease


  • Slightly increased risk due to exposure to certain herbicides and pesticides
Back to Top
  • Slowly progressive, yet variable from person to person
  • Some have more tremors, while others may experience more rigidity or falls
  • Early stages of the condition may not require any medications
  • As the disease advances however, almost all patients would require some form of treatment
  • Without treatment, Parkinson's will likely lead to continued deterioration, total disability and subsequent death
  • Fortunately, most patients typically respond to medication which eases symptoms and improves the quality of life
  • Of the medications available formulations containing Levodopa (L-dopa) tends to be the most effective
  • However, the type and dose of medication used depends on clinical response and side effects
Back to Top
Copyright © 2011-2019 Innovate R&D

educate Are you a Healthcare professional or patient?

Healthcare Professionals would include: Physicians (MD,OD), Physician assistants, Nurses, Pharmacists,Allied Health Workers (PT, OT, SLP, etc), Chiropractors, Paramedics, Optometrists, Dentists, Podiatrists etc, and students within these disciplines.

educate ** You are required to register **

eDucate is committed to optimizing the delivery of health information across the Healthcare continuum. To this end eDucate uses a wide array of learning tools, including Webinars, Quick Review Charts, Graphs, Brochures, Videos and Slide Presentations.

Professional Membership Benefits include free access to all archived and upcoming Webinars:

educate DISCLAIMER: This website is owned and operated by The Innovate Research and Development LP (Innovate R&D). All references herein to Innovate R&D shall be deemed to include any subsidiary, affiliate, associate or successor corporation of Innovate R&D. By entering and using this site, you agree to the "Terms of Use"for this website. If you do not agree to these terms and conditions then exit from this site immediately. Although Innovate R&D updates this website regularly with material believed to be accurate at the time of posting, Innovate R&D does not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or currency of the material and consequently Innovate R&D expressly disclaims any liability for errors or omissions in the material contained in the website. The Innovate R&D website and all contents are provided as-is, and all representations and warranties, express or implied, relating to the website or the content are disclaimed, including any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement, as well as any warranty of quality, functionality, accuracy, currency, completeness, reliability, operability, use performance or absence of viruses. In no way or event will Innovate R&D or any party that has been involved in the creation, production, promotion and marketing be liable to you or any other party for perceived direct or indirect damages. You assume all responsibility and risk of loss resulting from the use of our website.